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Thursday, May 22, 2014

Pandi ning Indung Kapampangan (Flag of the Pampanga Nation)

Pampanga had been a nation long before the Philippine Archipelago has been a ‘nation.’ It has its own culture, language, mythology, philosophy, political structure and a flag. A flag symbolizes a distinct country or nation ( It represents the belief, the history and the people of the country.

Courtesy of

Pampanga’s flag has the color of kundiman (red), aluntian (green) and dilo (yellow). The meaning has varied depending to the perspective of your source.

Maniago's Military Flag
Courtesy of
Based on historical accounts, Francisco Maniago has used the color red, yellow (golden) and green during the Kapampangan uprising of 1660. The salagintu (red, yellow and green) or sometimes called golden beetle was the color used by the Kapampangan nobility during the Spanish time. The color of salagintu was also used by the secular clergy in Pampanga way back then.  Even the Christianized festival i.e Apung Iru Libad in Apalit uses the three colors.

Moreover there were allegations that the clan of Baluyut, who were in priesthood back then, used the three colours in their insignia. They also use the salagintu color to decorate the churches, streets and festivals. Also, the Pamintuan family used also the salagintu color to represent their clan whether in the army or in the political arena. Meanwhile in 1950, the Archdiocese of Pampanga adopted the salagintu color in its insignia.

Annual Libad Ilug of Apalit
Courtesy of Apalit FB Page
At the present, the seal of Pampanga still bear the color of salagintu. Also, the town of Apalit, Mexico, Sto. Tomas (to name few) has also added the salagintu color in their official seal.

Official Seal of Pampanga
The Significance of the Salagintu Color
The following relevance and meaning of the salagintu came from various sources.
Terms: Kundiman – red; Aluntian – green; dilo/gintu – yellow

(1) Paroba, Pangulu ampong Bunduk Alaya

The color kundiman represents the Pangulu (upper Pampanga); the color aluntian represents the Paroba (lower Pampanga) and the color dilo represents Mt. Arayat.

(2) Alti, Danum ampong Aldo

According to local historian and Kapampangan Culture advocate Mike Pangilinan, the kundiman of the Kapampangan flag represents the alti (lightning). ‘Alti’ is the authority/punishment/energy of Bapung Aldo (Apung Suku). Kundiman represents the color of destruction. Meanwhile aluntian represents the ‘uran’ (rain) and ‘sibul’ (spring of water) which comes after ‘Alti.’ Aluntian represents the water which heals the land and the people. Dilo represents Bapung Suku/Apung Suku, the golden sun. Apung Suku is the one who mediates ‘alti’ and ‘danum.’

Libad Ilug Dela Pas
Courtesy of LOI Photography
(3) Katapangan, Kasipagan and Kasugian

In addition to the meaning stated above salagintu color also represents Katapangan, Kasipagan, Kasugian. These meanings were defined by the Catholic Church when they adopted the Kapampangan Colors. Kundiman represents Katapangan (bravery), Gintung Dilo represents Kasugian (nobility). And Aluntian represents Kasipagan (Industriousness).

(4) Babo Pampanga, Lalam Pampanga ampong I Yesukristu

In the website, the salagintu color represents Pampanga and Jesus Christ. Kundiman is the color of Upper Pampanga. Aluntian is the color of Lower Pampanga and Dilo is the color of Christ.

(5) Alta Pampanga, Bajo Del Pampanga ampo deng Dayatan

The colors’ of the Flag of Pampanga has another meaning. Kundiman is the color of the Alta Pampanga (Upper Pampanga). Red was given to Alta Pampanga due to the color of the soil and their product – sugar. On the other hand, Aluntian represents Bajo Del Pampanga. Aluntia is Bajo Del Pampanga’s color due to the abundance of rice fields. And Dilo again represents Kasugian (nobility).
Kapampangan FB Cover Page
Created by Alwyn Balingit
On the personal communication of Pineda and Pangilinan, Pangilinan mentioned that there are other colors/flags that represent Pampanga and its culture. There is the flag with Maputi (white), Kundiman (red) and Matuling (black). Maputi is the color of Ugtung Aldo, Bayang, Apung Sinukuan a Manlasak (Apung Suku who destroys) and Apung Manalaksan. Kundiman represents Apung Maliari and Apung Mangkukuran. Lastly, Matuling is the color of Tau (people).

If the flag is hang horizontal, Kundiman is on the top of Dilo; Aluntian is on the bottom. However if the Kapampangan Flag is vertically oriented, most of the flags seen have Aluntian near the Pole, Dilo at the Middle and Kundiman at the right of Dilo. There has been no concrete and structured guideline as to the orientation of Kapampang Flag.

Kapampangan Flag at Candaba
Courtesy of Fr. Greg Vega FB account
A flag can be just a flag. But let us dig dipper on what it represents especially the Pandi ning Pampanga. Let us hang our Flag and be proud that we have this flag (older than the Philippine Flag) which represents our Kapampangan identity!

Pineda L. & Pangilinan M. Personal Communication. May 16 2014.
Pineda L. & Aboyme J. Personal Communication. April 12 2014.
Facebook Page of Apo Iru
Facebook Page of Apalit
Facebook Page of Pampanga

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